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Bank:Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.) 

Working Paper
Variance risk premia, asset predictability puzzles, and macroeconomic uncertainty

This paper presents predictability evidence from the difference between implied and expected variances or variance risk premium that: (1) the variance difference measure predicts a significant positive risk premium across equity, bond, and credit markets; (2) the predictability is short-run, in that it peaks around one to four months and dies out as the horizon increases; and (3) such a short-run predictability is complementary to that of the standard predictor variables--P/E ratio, forward spread, and short rate. These findings are potentially justifiable by a general equilibrium model with ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 2010-14

Working Paper
Marketplace Lending and Consumer Credit Outcomes : Evidence from Prosper

In 2005, Prosper launched the first peer-to-peer lending website in the US, allowing for consumers to apply for and receive loans entirely online. To understand the effect of this new credit source, we match application-level data from Prosper to credit bureau data. Post application, borrowers' credit scores increase and their credit card utilization rates fall relative to non-borrowers in the short run. In the longer run, total debt levels for borrowers are higher that of non-borrowers. Differences in mortgage debt are particularly large and increasing over time. Despite increased debt ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 2019-022

Working Paper
Friedman's monetary economics in practice

This paper views the policy response to the recent financial crisis from the perspective of Milton Friedman's monetary economics. Five major aspects of the policy response are: 1) discount window lending has been provided broadly to the financial system, at rates low relative to the market rates prevailing pre-crisis; 2) the Federal Reserve's holdings of government securities have been adjusted with the aim of putting downward pressure on the path of several important interest rates relative to the path of short-term rates; 3) deposit insurance has been extended, helping to insulate the money ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 2011-26

Working Paper
The price and quantity of residential land in the United States

We combine publicly available data from Freddie Mac, the Decennial Census of Housing, and the Bureau of Economic Analysis to construct the first constant-quality aggregate price index for the stock of residential land in the United States. We uncover five main results: (a) since 1970, residential land prices have grown faster but (b) have also been twice as volatile as existing home prices; (c) averaged from 1970 to 2003, the nominal stock of residential land under 1-4 unit structures accounts for 38% of the market value of the housing stock and is equal to 50% of nominal annual GDP; (d) the ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 2004-37

Working Paper
Financing Constraints, Firm Dynamics, and International Trade

There is growing empirical support for the conjecture that access to credit is an important determinant of firms' export decisions. We study a multi-country general equilibrium economy in which entrepreneurs and lenders engage in long-term credit relationships. Financial constraints arise in consequence of financials contracts that are optimal given information asymmetry. Consistent with empirical regularities, as firm age and size increase, the model implies decreasing mean and variance of fi rm growth and increasing fi rm survival. Exporters are larger, their survival in international ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 2012-68

Working Paper
Retail deposit fees and multimarket banking

This paper reports a systematic examination of the determinants of deposit-related retail banking fees using a set of survey data that is unusual for its size, specificity, and sampling properties. The analysis focuses explicitly on six different fees associated with checking accounts and automated teller machine (ATM) usage. A preliminary analysis documents that, on average, multimarket banks charge substantially higher fees than do typically smaller, single-market banks. A more detailed econometric analysis yields results consistent with predictions of recent models. In particular, it finds ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 2005-65

Working Paper
The role of specific subjects in education production functions: evidence from morning classes in Chicago public high schools

Absences in Chicago Public High Schools are 3-7 days per year higher in first period than at other times of the day. This study exploits this empirical regularity and the essentially random variation between students in the ordering of classes over the day to measure how the returns to classroom learning vary by course subject, and how much attendance in one class spills over into learning in other subjects. We find that having a class in first period reduces grades in that course and has little effect on long-term grades or grades in related subjects. We also find moderately-sized negative ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 2010-33

Discussion Paper
Living at Home Ain't Such a Drag (on Spending): Young Adults' Spending In and Out of Their Parents' Home

In this Note, we quantify the net change in annual spending by a young adult who has just moved out of her parents' home.
FEDS Notes , Paper 2019-02-05

Working Paper
Implications of the U.S. current account deficit

In 1988, the United States recorded a current account deficit of about $135 billion. The consensus forecast seems to be for little change in the current account in the near term. In this paper, the implications of the U.S. current account deficit and of the consequent buildup in U.S. external debt are examined. The analytical framework for thinking about the U.S. current account is first surveyed, and the results from the empirical literature on the causes of the deficits in the 1980s are then reported. The sustainability of the U.S. external position is discussed next. It is concluded that, ...
International Finance Discussion Papers , Paper 350

Working Paper
The effects of recent exchange rate changes on the U.S. trade balance

International Finance Discussion Papers , Paper 52

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