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Interest rate volatility contributed to higher mortgage rates in 2022

The Federal Reserve aggressively tightened monetary policy in 2022, responding to high and persistent inflation. The resulting borrowing cost increase for households and firms was generally anticipated. However, fixed-rate mortgage interest rates were especially sensitive to the policy regime change.
Dallas Fed Economics

Working Paper
Spatial Dependence and Data-Driven Networks of International Banks

This paper computes data-driven correlation networks based on the stock returns of international banks and conducts a comprehensive analysis of their topological properties. We first apply spatial-dependence methods to filter the effects of strong common factors and a thresholding procedure to select the significant bilateral correlations. The analysis of topological characteristics of the resulting correlation networks shows many common features that have been documented in the recent literature but were obtained with private information on banks? exposures. Our analysis validates these ...
Working Papers (Old Series) , Paper 1627

Design of contingent capital with a stock price trigger for mandatory conversion

Contingent capital (CC), a regulatory debt that must convert into common equity when a bank?s equity value falls below a specified threshold (a trigger), does not in general lead to a unique equilibrium in the prices of the bank?s equity and CC. Multiplicity or absence of equilibrium arises because economic agents are not allowed to choose a conversion policy in their best interests. The lack of unique equilibrium introduces the potential for price manipulation, market uncertainty, inefficient capital allocation, and unreliability of conversion. Because CC may not convert to equity in a ...
Staff Reports , Paper 448

Journal Article
Do big banks have lower operating costs?

This study examines the relationship between bank holding company (BHC) size and components of noninterest expense (NIE) in order to shed light on the sources of scale economies in banking. Drawing on detailed expense information provided by U.S. banking firms in the memoranda of their regulatory filings, the authors find a robust negative relationship between size and normalized measures of NIE. The relationship is strongest for employee compensation expenses and components of ?other? noninterest expense such as information technology and corporate overhead expenses. In addition, the authors ...
Economic Policy Review , Issue Dec , Pages 1-27

Journal Article
Banking Trends: Has the Banking Industry Become Too Concentrated?

By one key measure, the banking market has become highly concentrated, but other measures suggest a more nuanced story.
Banking Trends , Volume 8 , Issue 1 , Pages 11-26

Working Paper
Diamond-Dybvig and Beyond: On the Instability of Banking

Are financial intermediaries—in particular, banks—inherently unstable or fragile, and if so, why? We address this question theoretically by analyzing whether model economies with financial intermediation are more prone than those without it to multiple, cyclic, or stochastic equilibria. We consider several formalizations: insurance-based banking, models with reputational considerations, those with fixed costs and delegated investment, and those where bank liabilities serve as payment instruments. Importantly for the issue at hand, in each case banking arrangements arise endogenously. ...
FRB Atlanta Working Paper , Paper 2023-02

Expanded central clearing would increase Treasury market resilience

The smooth functioning of markets for Treasury securities is critically important to the U.S. economy. The federal government relies on the sale of Treasuries to finance essential services, and the Federal Reserve uses Treasury markets to implement monetary policy.
Dallas Fed Economics

Journal Article
Measuring Cov-Lite Right

More business loans today lack traditional covenants governing borrowers. Does that leave banks with fewer tools to ward off default?
Banking Trends , Issue 3 , Pages 1-8

Banks See Challenges from Fintech Disruption

While banks have lost market share to fintech firms, they have also benefited from new financial technology—such as the use of RegTech and SupTech.
On the Economy

Working Paper
Money, Banking, and Old-School Historical Economics

We review developments in the history of money, banking, and financial intermediation over the last twenty years. We focus on studies of financial development, including the role of regulation and the history of central banking. We also review the literature of banking and financial crises. This area has been largely unaffected by the so-called new econometric methods that seek to prove causality in reduced form settings. We discuss why historical macroeconomics is less amenable to such methods, discuss the underlying concepts of causality, and emphasize that models remain the backbone of our ...
Working Paper Series , Paper WP-2020-28



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