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Equity financing of the entrepreneurial firm
Equity financing of the entrepreneurial firm has achieved a rapid increase over the past> decade. Venture capital funds, which finance privately held start-ups, raised a record $92.3 billion in 2000. This is a 30-fold increase relative to 1990. At Nasdaq, initial public offerings raised an all-time high of $53.6 billion in 2000, which is 24 times as much as in 1990. This article studies venture equity financing and equity financing through initial public offerings against the background of asymmetric information between the entrepreneur and the (outside) investor. The analysis shows that ...
Financing biotechnology research: a firsthand perspective
Equity Regulation and U.S. Venture Capital Investment
There is a growing consensus that the long-run per capita growth rate of the U.S. economy has drifted lower since the early 2000s, consistent with a perceived slowdown in business dynamism. One factor that may have contributed to this is a downshift in venture capital investment and its failure to recover in line with stock prices, as pre-2003 patterns would suggest. Critics have argued that this is associated with the increased regulatory burden for publically traded firms to comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX). There is inconclusive evidence of SOX deterring firms from becoming ...
Public venture, public gain?
Convertible securities and venture capital finance
Venture capital financing relies heavily on convertible securities; the most common type is convertible preferred stock. Venture capital contracts also specify control rights that describe who gets to make the firm's decisions. The recent literature has provided some theoretical explanations for the use of these two features. Underlying these explanations is the idea that individuals can take actions that affect the firm's performance but that these actions cannot be specified in a contract. In this article, Yaron Leitner focuses on venture capital contracts, but the ideas presented can be ...
Financial markets conference explores venture capital
Financing rural innovation with community development venture capital: models, options and obstacles
Growing local companies is essential to the economic prosperity for many rural regions and residents. Rural economies, however, rarely attract traditional venture capital. Given the important role that patient capital plays in entrepreneurial development, the future economic vitality of rural communities rests, at least in part, on their ability to access such capital. Community development venture capital (CDVC) is a particularly adept model for overcoming the structural obstacles that rural geographies present for venture capital investors. Rubin explores some of the obstacles this model ...
Vesting and control in venture capital contracts
Vesting of equity payments to an entrepreneur, which is a form of time-contingent compensation, is very common in venture capital contracts. Empirical research suggests that vesting is used to help overcome asymmetric information and agency problems. We show in a theoretical model that vesting equity to an entrepreneur over a long period of time acts as a screening device against a bad entrepreneur type. But incomplete contracts due to hold-up by the venture capitalist imply that equity compensation, in the form of either short-term or long-term vesting, cannot provide standard contractible ...
Private equity industry: Southwest firms draw on regional expertise
Neiman Marcus, Harrah?s, Petco, J. Crew?these well-known names are among the holdings of companies owned or co-owned by private equity (PE) firms in the Federal Reserve?s Eleventh District. The region is home to more than 175 PE firms, including the world?s third-largest, Fort Worth-based TPG Capital. Together, these entities have raised more than $109 billion over the past 10 years and sit on $31 billion pending investment. ; While the PE business model goes back to the times of early seafaring enterprises funded by limited private partners, its modern U.S. iteration dates back to the ...
Optimal financial contracts for large investors: the role of lender liability
This paper explores the optimal financial contract for a large investor with potential control over a firm's investment decisions. The authors show that an optimally designed menu of claims for a large investor will include features resembling a U.S. version of lender liability doctrine, equitable subordination. This doctrine permits a firm's claimants to seek to subordinate a controlling investor's financial claim in bankruptcy court, but only under well-specified conditions. Specifically, the authors show that this doctrine allows a firm to strike an efficient balance between two concerns: ...