Between a rock and a hard place: the CRA-safety and soundness pinch
A statistical model of regulatory exam ratings provides evidence of conflict between Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) objectives, on one side, and safety and soundness standards, on the other. In his analysis of supervisory goals, Jeff Gunther finds that concentrating bank assets in loans and managing capital at relatively low levels tend to help CRA ratings while hurting CAMEL ratings. Also, banks with financial problems are more likely to receive substandard CRA ratings, even though a shift in resources away from CRA objectives may be necessary to facilitate financial recovery. These ...
Service output of bank holding companies in the 1990s and the role of risk
This paper constructs a new measure of output for Bank Holding Companies (BHCs) over the period 1986 to 1999. This flow measure of bank value added follows from a unified model of bank operation that integrates theories of production, financial intermediation, and asset pricing. The primary contribution of the model is to demonstrate how one should account for risk when measuring the value added of bank services. One key implication is that the risk-related return on the funds banks borrow and lend should be excluded from the nominal value of the services banks produce, since the model ...
Banking in the age of information technology
Adopting commercial codes: overcoming lending barriers on reservations
Eric Henson of The Economics Resource Group, Inc., and Luxman Nathan of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston highlight a legal obstacle to providing increased banking services to Native American reservations. As "sovereign dependent" nations, native American reservations are not governed by the same commercial laws that operate at the state level. In particular, the lack of commercial codes, which regulate commercial transactions within a given jurisdiction, hampers tribal efforts to obtain greater access to banking services. However, a number of tribes are beginning to draft and adopt ...
Discussion of the new tool set in banking
Bullish on banking: thriving in the information age
Changing technology and the payment system
On September 11, 2000, Jamie B. Stewart, Jr., First Vice President and Chief Operating Officer of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, delivered the following remarks at Sibos 2000, the international banking operations seminar sponsored by the payment network SWIFT (Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications).
Retail pricing of ATM network services
This paper develops a model of wholesale and retail fee-setting for automated teller machine (ATM) network services, and comparative statics results are derived. Retail ATM fees are shown to be dependent on the demand-side network effect and economies of scale in production of network services. These, in turn, are functions of the size of the ATM network. Survey data on bank fees are linked with the bank's probable ATM network membership, and the retail ATM fees are regressed on ATM network size and other variables in a reduced-form estimation. The results suggest that both network effects in ...
Potential employment effects of the restructuring of retail banking
The author explains that two steps being taken by banks to restructure their branch systems--the substitution of supermarket branches for traditional offices and the expansion of telephone banking through twenty-four-hour phone centers--may adversely affect employment in New York State as well as across the country.