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Author:Walter, John R. 

Journal Article
How large has the federal financial safety net become?

Legislative and regulatory actions taken in response to the financial turmoil that occurred between 2007-2009 expanded the extent to which financial institution liabilities were protected by federal government guarantees, i.e., these actions expanded the federal financial safety net. How large has the safety net become? Walter and Weinberg (2002) measured and examined the size of the safety net as it stood in 1999. We estimate the size of the safety net as of the end of 2009, after the creation of a number of government programs meant to back financial liabilities. We use methods similar to ...
Economic Quarterly , Volume 96 , Issue 3Q , Pages 273-290

Working Paper
Did the Financial Reforms of the Early 1990s Fail? A Comparison of Bank Failures and FDIC Losses in the 1986-92 and 2007-13 Periods

Two of the most significant banking reforms to come out of the banking problems in the late 1980s and early 1990s were the increase in capital requirements from Basel 1 and the prompt corrective action (PCA) provisions of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991 (FDICIA). The PCA provisions require regulators to shut down banks before book capital becomes negative. We compare failures and FDIC losses on commercial banks in the pre-FDICIA commercial bank crisis of the mid-1980s to early 1990s with that in the recent financial crisis. Using a sample of community and ...
Working Paper , Paper 15-5

Journal Article
Depression era bank failures : the great contagion of the great shakedown?

Economic Quarterly , Volume 91 , Issue Win , Pages 39-54

Journal Article
The 3-6-3 rule : an urban myth?

Economic Quarterly , Volume 92 , Issue Win , Pages 51-78

Journal Article
Can a safety net subsidy be contained?

Economic Quarterly , Issue Win , Pages 1-20

Journal Article
The region's BHCs rank high

Cross Sections , Issue Spr , Pages 3-4

Briefing
Did Banking Reforms of the Early 1990s Fail? Lessons from Comparing Two Banking Crises

New Richmond Fed research on community and midsize banks evaluates the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act (FDICIA) and Basel I by comparing failures in the 1986-92 period to those in 2007-13. Banks greatly increased commercial real estate lending between the two banking crises, but higher capital mitigated this risk. Failure rates in the recent crisis were mainly driven by the severity of the economic shocks. However, higher capital did not help contain FDIC losses, which were much larger in the recent crisis. One possible explanation is limitations in the accounting ...
Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Issue June

Journal Article
What can price theory say about the Community Reinvestment Act?

Economic Quarterly , Issue Spr , Pages 1-27

Journal Article
Keeping SAIF safe

The insurance fund covering most savings institutions might not be as safe as its name suggests.
Cross Sections , Volume 12 , Issue Sum , Pages 10-14

Journal Article
Pooling or purchase: a merger mystery

Economic Quarterly , Issue Win , Pages 27-46

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